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Elements:
  • 🜁 1f701
  • 🜂 1f702
  • 🜄 1f704
  • 🜃 1f703

Solvents:
  • e035
  • 🜅 1f705
  • e00d
  • e05a
  • 🜆 1f706
  • 🜇 1f707
  • e036
  • 🜈 1f708
  • 🜋 1f70b
  • 🜌 1f70c

Mercury:
  • 263f
  • e042
  • e043
  • e044
  • e045
  • 🜐 1f710
  • e055
  • e00f
  • e041
  • 🜑 1f711

Sulfur:
  • 🜍 1f70d
  • e056
  • e00e

Salt:
  • 🜔 1f714
  • 🜭 1f72d
  • 🜦 1f726
  • e040
  • 🜮 1f72e
  • e016
  • 🜧 1f727
  • e012

Vitriol and niter:
  • 🜖 1f716
  • 🜗 1f717
  • e05c
  • 🜕 1f715
  • e03a
  • e047
  • e046
  • e053

Sal ammoniac:
  • 🜹 1f739
  • 26b9
  • e05e
  • e04b
  • e04c
  • e04a
  • e04e
  • e04d

Gold / Sun:
  • 2609
  • e03e
  • e03d

Silver / Moon:
  • 263d
  • 263e
  • e051
  • e052
  • e050
  • e044

Iron / Mars:
  • 2642
  • 🜜 1f71c
  • 🜝 1f71d
  • e010
  • 🜡 1f721
  • 🜟 1f71f

Copper / Venus:
  • 2640
  • 🜥 1f725
  • e038
  • 🜠 1f720
  • e011
  • 🜢 1f722
  • 🜡 1f721
  • 🜧 1f727
  • e012
  • 2647

Tin / Jupiter:
  • 2643
  • e059
  • 🜩 1f729
  • e013

Lead / Saturn:
  • 2644
  • e009
  • e03f
  • 🜪 1f72a
  • e014
  • e04f

Antimony and regulus:
  • 2641
  • 🜫 1f72b
  • 🜭 1f72d
  • 🜦 1f726
  • 🜥 1f725
  • 🜰 1f730
  • 🜳 1f733
  • 🜵 1f735
  • 🜴 1f734
  • 🜟 1f71f
  • 🜱 1f731
  • e015
  • 🜬 1f72c
  • 🜯 1f72f

Other substances:
  • e01e
  • e034
  • 2646
  • e018
  • 🜾 1f73e
  • 🝏 1f74f
  • 🝐 1f750
  • e037
  • 🝎 1f74e
  • e03b
  • e03c
  • e033
  • e022
  • 🝆 1f746
  • e061
  • e048
  • e029

  • e054
  • 🜿 1f73f
  • e057
  • e05f
  • e060
  • e058
  • 🝑 1f751
  • 🝒 1f752
  • 🝈 1f748
  • e019
  • 🝕 1f755
  • e05b

Apparatus / processes:
  • 🝫 1f76b
  • e05d
  • 🜊 1f70a
  • e039
  • e01c
  • 🝞 1f75e
  • 🝧 1f767
  • e01d

Astrology:
  • 2648
  • 2652
  • 264b
  • 2651
  • e00b
  • 🜨 1f728
  • 264a
  • e00a
  • 264c
  • 264e
  • 2653
  • e049
  • e00c
  • 2650
  • 264f

  • 2649
  • e01f
  • 264d
  • 🝰 1f770
  • 2645

Measures and weights:
  • e002
  • e004
  • ʒ 0292
  • 🝳 1f773
  • e02b
  • e003
  • 2125
  • e001
  • e005
  • 2114
  • 2108
  • 211e

Paleography:
  • e100
  • e11b
  • e200
  • e101
  • e102
  • e201
  • e103
  • e104
  • e105
  • e106
  • e122
  • e107
  • e108
  • e109
  • e10a
  • e10b
  • e10c
  • e10d
  • e202
  • e204

  • e023
  • e203
  • e025
  • e10e
  • e020
  • e205
  • e206
  • e207
  • e10f
  • e11a
  • e127
  • e120

  • e110
  • e121
  • e123
  • e111
  • e124
  • e112
  • e113
  • e125
  • e114
  • e126
  • e115
  • e116
  • e117
  • e118
  • e119

Editorial marks:
  • 26b9
  • e031
  • 2041
  • e026
  • e027
  • e02c
  • e02d
  • e021
  • e02a
  • e028
  • e02f
  • e030
  • e02e
  • 261e
  • 🝮 1f76e
  • 25a1
  • e032

Browse Manuscripts


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 12, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Propositions 1.     
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: A 'Propositions': alchemical notes in Latin, c. 400 words, 3 pp. Apparently Newton's own formulations.
B Miscellaneous notes on multiplication by solution and coagulation, mostly in Latin with some English, c. 2,000 words, 4 pp. Drawn from various (acknowledged) sources including Aristotle, Nicholas Flamel and Michael Maier [Mayer].
Physical Description:

Two full-sheets folded into four folios each (Sheet 1 = folios 1r–4v, Sheet 2 = folios 5r–8v), with one horizontal cut made halfway across, like CU add. MS. 3973.

NB: Sheet 2, 1r is soiled, stained, and obscured as though it had been placed at the outside of the packet.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: 407 x 311 mm (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2: 380 x 298 mm.

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Very clear hanging horn within shield. No countermark or attendant marks.
  • Sheet 2: Larger hanging horn within shield. Countermark — "IB" or "IP" when shield is on right.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
Latin , English
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by William H. Robinson for £5.10s.; on 13 August 1936 Robinson told Keynes it was available and he evidently bought it.

Sotheby Lot:
SL1
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 12 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 13, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
1 Hermetis Tab. Smarag.    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: pp. 1-3 A list of writers and works on alchemy, variously classified according to antiquity, nationality and degree of usefulness.
p. 4 Draft of 'An account of Gold & Silver moneys coyned since Christmas'.
pp. 5-6 Another list of writers, with their dates, signed 'Ieova sanctvs vnvs' [an anagram of Isaacvs Nevvtonvs].
p. 7 'Authores optimi': another list.
p. 8 Extract from 'An Act for encouraging Coynage' (18 Charles II cap. 5).
Physical Description:

This manuscript consists of three sheets, one of which has been folded side by side (Sheet 1 = folios 1r–2v, Sheet 2 = folios 3r–3v, Sheet 3 = folios 4r–4v). The librarians have placed all three within their own clear plastic pouches. Despite the fact that the three sheets have similar vertical dimensions, each is on a different type of paper.

NB: Sheet 2 was once folded vertically into four sections, each about 77 x 194 mm.

Measurements:
  • Sheet 1: 305 x 373 mm (vertical x horizontal). This is a full-sheet, folded once laterally.
  • Sheet 2: 312 x 197 mm.
  • Sheet 3: 308 x 200 mm.

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Arms of the City of London (dagger at top left). Countermark — "I V".
  • Sheet 2: "E B" countermark. Quite distinct chains, 23 mm apart.
  • Sheet 3: Hanging horn within shield. There may be an attendant mark, but it is hard to make out. Very indistinct chains in this paper, about 26 mm apart.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
Latin , English , French
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale for £9.10s. by Bernard Quaritch, who presumably sold it to Heffers. Keynes took it from them on approval on 17 August 1936 for £16 and must have bought it by 11 September, when Quaritch told Yahuda that the lot had already been sold.

Sotheby Lot:
SL2
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 13 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 14, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Artephius his secret Book    
Contents
From the Newton Project catalog: Excerpts from Nicholas Flammel, His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius, And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone. This English translation was published in London, 1624 and seems to have been Newton's main source. However, in the Pontanus letter he departs from the text of this edition at some points, possibly through reference to the Latin version in vol. 6 of Lazarus Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum (1659-61: H1608): see Dobbs, Foundations, 130-31.
Physical Description:

This MS. has been bound in modern times in shiny black leather. Binding size is 205 x 173 mm (vertical dimension first).

On the interior of the front binding is a modern shelfmark (top left) - “40.G.5.” Before the MS. proper, the binders have inserted three flyleaves of modern paper. After the end of the manuscript they have added four leaves of modern paper. On the first flyleaf a librarian has written "Lot 7." "MS. 14" followed by penciled notes describing the content, which are ignored.

The MS. now consists of three unsewn fascicles or packets (Packet 1 = folios 1r-5v; Packet 2 = folios 6r-9v; Packet 3 = 10r-13v). However, it is clear that the first and last folios of the MS. originally constituted a cover to the whole MS. and were not part of he first and last packets respectively. Before the first original packet and after the last original packet one finds a single folio, devoid of Newton’s handwriting except for the title “Artefius” on 1r. Folios 1 and 10 were once no doubt connected, and formed a cover to the packets within. Later they either came apart spontaneously or were intentionally separated so that the packets could be glued to their stubs in the process of binding the MS. The first two packets are made up of folded halfsheets that have been nested, but the third is folded and slit (it is possible, of course, that all three packets were originally folded and slit, and that the unslit parts have subsequently separated). The three packets have been independently glued to stubs. In all three packets, the central sheet, consisting of two folios, is not glued and can be lifted out. The first packet consists of two folded and nested half-sheets. The second packet consists of two folded and nested half-sheets. The third packet consists of a single full-sheet folded and slit in the style of CU add. 3973.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1 (1r-1v): 195 x 150 mm (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2 (2r-2v, 5r-5v): 195 x c. 300 mm.
  • Sheet 3 (3r-4v): 197 x 30 2mm.
  • Sheet 4 (6r-6v,9r-9v): c. 200 x 300 mm.
  • Sheet 5 (7r-8v): 196 x 302 mm.
  • Sheet 6 (10r-13v): 388 x 303 mm (unfolded)
  • Sheet 7 (14r-14v): 195 x 149 mm.
Watermarks
  • Sheet 1, 10: Crowned fleur-de-lis within a plaque. No attendant mark. The crown is above the plaque and not touching it. The crown has five prongs protruding from the top. The bottom of the crown is drawn as an ellipse, so that one is looking up into it. As one looks up into the crown from beneath, he can make out either some of the prongs from the other side of the crown or else the top of the plaque. The bottom of the lily is ringed by a band composed of three horizontal sections. The lily extends downward beneath the ring into a smaller tripartite division that is like a smaller version of its upwards tripartite bloom. No obvious countermark or any other marks are visible. The watermarks appear to be of the same general type throughout the MS., but it’s hard to say, thanks to the binding and writing.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
unknown
Language(s):
English
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by the London bookdealer C.A. Stonehill for £13; offered to Keynes for £20 on 7 September 1936 (and presumably accepted).

Sotheby Lot:
SL7
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 14 . Published 2011 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 15, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Out of Bloomfield's Blossoms    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: 'Out of Bloomfield's Blossoms' (an excerpt, beginning 'Father Time set me at ye gate'), 212 lines; 'A short work that beareth the name of Sr George Ripley', 92 lines (almost complete); and two 'Fragments', one untitled (beginning 'Let ye old man drink wine till he piss'), 8 lines, and the other headed 'The whole science', 11 lines. These are all taken from Elias Ashmole's Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652: H93), 305-23, 393-6, 436 and 434 respectively.
Physical Description:

A single large sheet with one horizontal cut made halfway across making four folios, like CU add. MS. 3973.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: 388 x 299 mm (vertical x horizontal).

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Crowned fleur-de-lis within shield, but it is hard to make out because of writing over it. No countermark or attendant marks.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Unknown Hand 2
Language(s):
English , Latin
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £7.10s. and sold to Keynes on 4 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.

Sotheby Lot:
SL8
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 15 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 16, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Causae et initia naturalium.    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: Notes on Jan Baptista van Helmont's Ortus medicinae (1667), in Latin.
Physical Description:

This MS. has been bound in shiny black leather, like Keynes MS. 14. The dimensions of the binding are 219 x 189 mm (vertical x horizontal). The binders have added four flyleaves in the front and four in the back; the recto of the first flyleaf has penciled modern notes beginning “Lot 9.” There is a small inserted sheet interleaved before the first flyleaf with blue pen notes by P.M. Rattansi, from 1969. The manuscript consists of two half-sheets, folded so that one goes inside the other. The outer sheet has been glued to a stub, but the inner sheet is not glued, and can be removed.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: Approximately 215 x 330 mm when unfolded (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2: 214 x 332 mm unfolded.

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: 4r has a foolscap watermark.
  • Sheet 1: No watermark detected.

Scribe:
Newton, Isaac
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
Latin
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £8.10s., and offered to Keynes for £12.10s. on 7 September 1936.

Sotheby Lot:
SL9
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 16 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 17, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Clavis Aureae Portae    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: Notes on and excerpts from George Ripley's 'Clavis Aureæ Portæ', 'Medulla Alchimiæ', and 'Pupilla Alchemiæ'.
Physical Description:

This manuscript consists of two sheets (sheet 1 = folios 1r–2v, 5r–6v; sheet 2 = folios 3r–4v). Sheet 1 is a single large sheet with one horizontal cut made halfway across making four folios, like CU add. MS. 3973. The first two folios are uncut and blank, except for modern librarians' marks.

Sheet 2 is a laterally folded half-sheet. There is a projection of about 10 x 40 mm coming out of the top right of 1r, as though Newton erred when cutting or tearing the sheet.

NB: Newton inserted the second fascicle within the first, so that it makes up folios 3 and 4 of the resulting booklet.

The small script (51 lines on 3r) and very dark brown ink is reminiscent of that in Keynes MS. 51.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: The unfolded sheet is 410 x 320 mm (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2: The unfolded half-sheet is 212 x 320 mm.

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Hanging horn within shield. No countermark or attendant marks. NB: This watermark is very similar and perhaps identical to that in Keynes MS. 51.
  • Sheet 2: Obscured horn hanging within shield.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
Latin , English
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by C.A. Stonehill for £8.10s. and offered to Keynes for £12.10s. on 7 September 1936; Stonehill advised Yahuda on 18 September that it had already been sold.

Sotheby Lot:
SL10
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 17 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 18, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Clavis    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: 'Clavis': detailed directions for a lengthy alchemical operation beginning with the digestion of antimony, iron and sulphur.
Physical Description:

A single sheet, folded and cut like CU add. 3973. The ink is very dark brown.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: The unfolded sheet is about 391 x 303 mm (vertical x horizontal).
Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Hanging horn in shield on right, countermark "I P I P" on left. There could be another "I" after the first "P" — it is indistinct here because of a crease. There are no obvious attendant marks.

Scribe:
Newton, Isaac
unknown
Language(s):
Latin , Greek
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £6 and sold to Keynes on 5 September 1936 for £8.5s.

Sotheby Lot:
SL11
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 18 . Published 2011 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 19, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
Collectiones ex Novo Lumine Chymico quae ad Praxin spectant    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: Annotated extracts from Michael Sendivogius and Jean d'Espagnet respectively. The right-hand half of each page consists of exegetical notes, which in the first set are headed 'Collectionum Explicationes', and in both cases take up rather more space than the original citations. f. 3v has the column headings 'Arcanum Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Opus' and 'Explicationes'.
Physical Description:

Keynes 19 is a single sheet, folded and cut like CU add. 3973.

The underlining in this MS. is clearly done with a blacker, darker ink than that in which the text is written. The main text is written in a medium brown ink.

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: The unfolded sheet is about 398 x 315 mm (vertical x horizontal).

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Arms of Amsterdam, no obvious countermark or attendant marks.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
Latin , English
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by Heffers for £9.10s. and sold to Keynes on 5 September for £12.10s. Heffers had originally asked £15.

Sotheby Lot:
SL12
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 19 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 20, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
The standing of ye glass for ye time of Putrefaction & Congelation of ye medicine.    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: The standing of ye glass for ye time of Putrefaction & Congelation of ye medecine', in verse, 14 lines; 'The hunting of ye Green Lyon' (an extract), in verse, c. 180 lines; 'Notes upon ye hunting of ye green Lyon', c. 500 words.
Physical Description:

Keynes 20 consists of two sheets. The first is a large one folded and slit in Newton’s characteristic manner, like CU add. 3973. The second one is a single small folio. The upper right hand corner of the packet made by the folded sheet is burned, as is the upper right hand corner of the single folio. There are also several ink blots on 1r-1v and a different one on 2r

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: 375 x 295 mm (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2: 195 x 147 mm.
Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Crowned fleur-de-lis within a plaque. Attendant mark beneath the shield looks like "HG". The crown is above the plaque and not touching it. The crown has five prongs protruding from the top. The bottom of the crown is drawn as an ellipse, so that one is looking up into it. The two top corners of the plaque are drawn to look like they are flexible and curling around toward the plaque’s front. The bottom of the lily is ringed by a band composed of three horizontal sections. The lily extends downward beneath the ring into a smaller tripartite division that is like a smaller version of its upwards tripartite bloom. No obvious countermark or any other marks. This watermark is very similar to the one found on MS. 42. NB: MS. 42 also contained a text drawn from the Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum — "Pearce the back Monck upon yethee Elixir."
  • Sheet 2: No evident watermark.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
unknown
Language(s):
English , Latin
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project catalog: Bought at the Sotheby sale by the London bookdealer C.A. Stonehill for £13; offered to Keynes for £20 on 7 September 1936 (and presumably accepted).

Sotheby Lot:
SL7
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 20 . Published 2011 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .


Cambridge, Keynes MS. 21, King's College Library, Cambridge University

Title
The Method of ye Work    
Contents
From the Newton Project Catalogue: 'The method of ye work': a commentary on [A.T. Limojon, Sieur de] Didier's 'Six Keys' (early 1690s?).
Physical Description:

Keynes 21 consists of 5 large sheets slit and folded in Newton’s usual CU add. 3973 fashion (Sheet 1 = folios 1r–4v, Sheet 2 = 5r–8v, Sheet 3 = 9r–12v, Sheet 4 = 13r–16v, Sheet 5 = 17r–20v).

Measurements
  • Sheet 1: 384 x 301 mm (vertical x horizontal).
  • Sheet 2: 384 x 301 mm.
  • Sheet 3: 394 x 301 mm.
  • Sheet 4: 382 x 300 mm.
  • Sheet 5: 384 x 301 mm.

Watermarks
  • Sheet 1: Perhaps the same or similar to Sheet 5, but it is difficult to read because of the dense handwriting.
  • Sheet 2: Perhaps the same or similar to Sheet 5, but it is difficult to read because of the dense handwriting.
  • Sheet 3: Perhaps the same or similar to Sheet 5, but it is difficult to read because of the dense handwriting.
  • Sheet 4: Perhaps the same or similar to Sheet 5, but it is difficult to read because of the dense handwriting.
  • Sheet 5: Easily visible crowned fleur-de-lis within a jagged plaque.

Scribe:
Isaac Newton
Unknown Hand
Language(s):
English , Latin
Custodial History:

From the Newton Project Catalogue: Bought at the Sotheby sale by Maggs Brothers for £15.10 and sold to Keynes on 13 August 1936 for the sale price plus 20%.

Sotheby Lot:
SL17
Electronic Publication:
Keynes MS. 21 . Published June 2010 , Indiana University , Bloomington, IN .

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