Letopis' Zhurnal'nykh Statei Project Hammer and Sickle
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Help with Letopis'

The online version of Letopis' Zhurnal'nykh Statei index consists of approximately 3 million citations published between 1956-1972 in the fields of humanities, natural sciences, social sciences and popular literature.

Getting Started | Search Tips | Results Display

Getting Started

Viewing and typing Cyrillic characters properly on this web site requires:

  1. A web browser set to display UTF-8 character encoding
  2. A font capable of displaying the Unicode characters used on this web site
  3. Using one of two input options (virtual, onscreen keyboard or physical keyboard)
Required Browsers

Recent browser versions are required to provide the needed functionality for the Letopis' web site. Compatible browsers include:

Internet Explorer



Note: Internet Explorer 5.0 and 5.2 for the MAC contains a bug which prohibits input in Cyrillic.

Selecting a Unicode Font

Windows Operating Systems
Current Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and up) do not require specific fonts to render and type in Cyrillic.

If you have an older version of Windows, you'll need to install Cyrillic language support as well as download fonts that can render Cyrillic.

Pre Windows 95 Language Support: Start -> Control Panel -> Add/Remove Programs -> Windows Setup tab -> select Multilanguage Support check box -> Click OK -> Exit

Pre Windows 95 Unicode Font Download: For Windows users, the Microsoft font Arial Unicode MS is the most complete font for displaying Unicode characters. This font is provided with Microsoft Office. Visit Microsoft's Support Page (see item #4) for instructions on installing this font.

MAC Operating Systems
MACs require that you download Cyrllic Language Kits in order to read and type in Russian. By downloading the kit, you will also download the fonts necessary.

Once Arial Unicode MS is installed for Windows or the Cyrillic Language Kit is installed for MACs, you may need adjust your browser settings if characters are still not appearing properly. See the section below entitled Browser Configuration for Multiple Alphabets (Unicode) for more information.

Browser Configuration for Multiple Alphabets (Unicode)

The Letopis' web site relies on Unicode character encoding to present the multiple alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek and Latin) found in the citations. Unfortunately not all browsers automatically recognize the Unicode standard so you may have to change a few settings in order to display characters properly.

Example image of how to set Unicode encoding on IE 6.0 for the PC If you see either a series of question marks or odd characters in place of the Cyrillic or Greek text, do the following:

Internet Explorer/PC: View -> Encoding -> More -> Select Unicode (UTF-8) or View -> Encoding -> Unicode (UTF-8)

Internet Explorer/MAC: View -> Character Set -> Universal Alphabet (UTF-8)

Netscape/PC & MAC: View -> Character Coding -> More -> Unicode (UTF-8)

Opera 6.0/PC: View -> Encoding -> Unicode -> UTF-8

If you still see strange characters check to see the font your browser is referencing is a Unicode font:

Internet Explorer/PC: Tools -> Internet Options -> Fonts, and choosing Arial Unicode MS off of the list under Web Page Fonts

Internet Explorer/MAC: Explorer -> Preferences -> chose Language/Fonts and change the Proportional (default) font to ER Univers Macintosh (Apple Standard Cyrillic), ABC Courier, Bastion, and Latinski fonts or fonts ending in "CY" like Geneva CY or Helvetica CY.

Language Input Options for Searching

Since the majority of the collection is in Russian, you can interact with the web site in Cyrllic in the following ways:

  • A virtual onscreen keyboard (see image below) is provided as a subsitute for your keyboard. To use the virtual keybaord, click on the appropriate letters to form your search phrase. The letters will appear in the search query box. Use either your keyboard space bar or the space bar provided in the virtual keyboard to enter a space between terms.

  • Example image of Hyperlinked Cyrillic Alphabet

    Additional Cyrillic characters used include: ґ, є, і, ї, ў
    Letopis' contains mostly Russian text. However, other non-Russian characters such as those found in the Ukraine or Bulgaria, may be present in the citations. These extra characters are also represented in the virtual keybaord to help your searching. The fourth row of the linked alphabet (characters in gray), as seen above, contains the additional characters.

    Additional Alphabets used include: Latin and Greek.
    Words entered in Latin-based alphabets may also retrieve records, such as Journal of the Royal Institute of Chemistry. However, Latin-based and Greek words appear infrequently.
  • Keyboard Input languages can be defined in your computer's control panel or system preferences. For example, your default Latin keyboard can behave as a Russian one if the Russian language is selected. Using your keyboard in this manner would require that you know the mappings of your current keyboard symbols to the Cyrillic keyboard layout, such as Latin to Cyrillic.

    Example image of how to set the input language on Windows XP If you already use a Cyrillic keyboard, the input settings you currently have should work.

  • Note: There may be multiple ways to change your keyboard input menu options. The examples below represent one path from the Windows XP, MAC OS 10.2, MAC OSX and MAC OS9 point of view. For previous operating systems such as Windows 98 or MAC OS 8, consult your operating system documentation.

    Windows XP: Start -> Control Panel -> Regional and Language Options -> Languages tab -> Details button -> Add button -> Russian as the Input Language

    MAC OSX - Jaguar (10.2) : Finder -> Applications -> System Preferences -> International -> Input Menu tab -> Russian

    MAC OSX: Finder -> Applications -> System Preferences -> International -> Keyboard Menu tab -> Russian (You may have to install the Russian/Cyrillic language kit to have Russian appear as an option. The operating system software discs contain these kits.)

    MAC OS9: Apple -> Control Panel -> Keyboard -> Russian (You may have to install the Russian/Cyrillic language kit to have Russian appear as an option. The operating system software discs contain these kits.)

Example image of Language Menu on Windows machine After you add Russian as an input language using Windows XP, you will see in your Start menu toolbar a Language Menu bar (see example on right), which you can use to easily toggle between Russian and English input. Make sure it is set to "RU" before you enter search terms. Similar Language Menu bars are also available for other Windows as well as MAC operating systems.

For Macintosh users, the Apple Support Site can be searched for Language Kits appropriate to your version of the Mac OS.

More information on configuring your web browser to display Unicode is available from the Unicode Consortium's Display Problems page.

Note: Transliteration from Latin characters to Russian is not a possible form of input at this time.


Search Tips

How to Search Letopis'

Enter search terms or phrases by either using the virtual keyboard or typing your query. The search engine will look for your terms in the citation. By default, the search engine will search for all the terms entered (using the "All words" search menu option).

Search terms are case-insensitive: upper, lower or mixed cases will produce the same results.

Make sure to press the "Clear" button when conducting new searches. Sometimes your previous search entries are saved (cached) by your browser and may produce innacurate searches.

Punctuation is ignored even when conducting an "Exact Phrase" search. Only letters are matched.

Search Menu Option Tips

  • Make sure to use the "All words" search menu option instead of typing AND in your search phrase. Typing AND will not yield results. The Russian equivalent to AND, и, should also not be typed unless you are looking for citations with the word и.

  • Make sure to use the "Any words" search menu option instead of typing OR in your search phrase. Typing OR will not yield results. The Russian equivalent to OR, или, should also not be typed unless you are looking for citations with the word или.

  • Make sure to use the "Exact phrase" search menu option instead of typing double quotes " " around your search phrase. Typing " " will not yield correct results.

  • Example image of the Letopis' search box and search menu option

Wildcard/Expanding Search Tips

    Search terms are not automatically expanded. To find all the various endings, conduct a wildcard search by inserting an asterisk (*) at the end of a term. Wildcard searching can be helpful since Russian words can have various endings, but it may also yield too many results.

    For example, if you search on Ленин* Коммунизм, you'll find citations that contain both Ленинизм Коммунизм and Ленина Коммунизм.

Search Examples

  • The "All words" menu option is the default setting and behaves like an "and" boolean search. Make sure to select this option instead of typing AND for a successful search. This option will find citations containing both words.
    e.g. Международная Торговля

    Example image of 'All Words' Search

  • The "Any words" menu option, which behaves like an "or" boolean search, will broaden your result set. This option will find citations in which at least one of the terms is present. Make sure to select this option instead of typing OR for a successful search.
    e.g. Телевидение Фильм

    Example image of 'Any Words' Search

  • The "Exact phrase" menu option, which behaves as a literal, word-for-word, search will limit your result set. Make sure to select this option instead of typing double quotes (" ") for a successful search.
    e.g. Манифест коммунистической партии

    Example image of 'Exact Phrase' Search

  • Some phrases are joined by hyphens such as марксизма-ленинизм. To find all possible occurrence of a word or phrase use a wildcard search:
    e.g. Марксизм*

    Example image of 'Wildcard' Search

  • For accurate results, search for author by last name only since the citations are formated the following way: author last name, first initial. second initial (optional). For example, Спиридонов, М. В.

    Image of Example Citation Illustrating Author Name Format

How to Use the Search Filters: Year and Subject Headings

To limit your search, two search filters are available: year and subject headings. Using one or both of these will lead to a smaller, more specific result set. Since Letopis' consists of over 3 million citations, using the search filters is highly recommended for narrowing your results.

Year Filter

  • The year filter provides the option to narrow your search to a specific year or range of years.

    • To search the index only during 1958, select 1958 in the "From" menu option.

    • To search the index from 1958 through 1960, select the years accordingly in the "From" and "To" menu options.

  • The default is set to search all years, which currently ranges from 1952 to 1972.

Subject Heading Filter

  • The subject heading filter is modeled after the Letopis' print version three-tier, hierarchical subject categorization schema. The top-level subject headings are preceded by Roman numerals. The second level headings are preceded by Arabic numbers and the third level headings are preceded by Cyrillic letters.

  • A plus sign at the beginning of a subject heading indicates that there are subtopics available. Select the plus sign to expand the subtopics.

  • You may search at any subject level by selecting the checkbox next to the heading. If you select a top-level subject, it will automatically search all the subtopics as well.

  • To further narrow your search, select only the subtopic(s) of interest.

  • You can select more than one heading at a time when searching.

  • Image of Expandable Subject Headings

Results Display
Presentation of Results

The results are grouped by subject heading and ordered in ascending chronological order. Only the most specific heading is spelled out (see example below). Top-level headings are identified by their numeric symbols.

Image of Search Results

If your search yields over 500 results, you will get citations, but a search tip will also appear advising you to limit your query with date and subject filters. Select the "New Search" link to return to the search page. Your original query will be saved.

Display Options

Image of Display Options found in the Search Page The default number of citations shown is 25 per page. In the Search page under the "Display Options" heading, you may change the number of results to display from 25 to 50 or 100.

Navigating within the Results Pages

If more than 25 results appear (or 50 or 100 if you change your display option), you will find next and previous links both on the top-right side and bottom-center of the results page. Clicking on these links will enable paging through your result set.

Email Results

You may email selected citations. Keep in mind that you can only email marked citations from a single page at a time. Selections from previous pages are not carried forward as you page through results.

  1. Select citations to email per page.
  2. Press button labeled "Email Results".

An email verification page will appear in a new window with the selected citations. These citations will be emailed to you in the format presented. On this page you will need to enter your email information:

  1. Enter your email address: e.g. username@indiana.edu
  2. Enter an email subject (optional): e.g. Letopis' Search Results
  3. Press button labeled "Email Results".
  4. An email confirmation page will appear.

Close this window and return to your results page or begin a new search.

You will receive the citations as an email attachment. The attachment will be an HTML file that you can view in your browser.