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Reminiscences of early Methodism in Indiana. Smith, J. C. (John C.), 1809–1883. 
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36 East Market Street.

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Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1879,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



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Of the Fathers, whose heroic deeds
Of patient and oft unrequited toil laid the foundations
On which
We are now building, and
Whose feet are now planted together on
And to the noble men and women,
Successors of these valiant sires,
Who, by faith and prayer, are laboring together with them,
In spirit, to bring forth
The topmost stone of the building
With shoutings of grace, grace unto it,
Conceived and elaborated
From the silent and unwritten archives of memory,
With the sole intent of
Perpetuating the grand achievements of our
heroic age, is

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THE heroic age of the Methodist Episcopal Church is not ended. The fire still glows on her altars; zeal still flames in her heart. The men who traveled the primeval forests of the West by blazed trees, forded or swam, as occasion required, the numerous and unbridged streams, who often slept under the friendly woods, faring hard and working harder—these heroes of a rough time were the fathers of noble sons. If the sires were heroic, their children are not cowardly. If the fathers laid the foundations, their sons rear the, superstructure. The sublime purpose which inaugurated the Methodistic movement still pushes the conquering march of her sacramental host. Her theology maintains its integrity; her worship retains its simplicity; her methods are more direct and efficient than those of any other church; her book of discipline makes no concession to popular sin. She stands as unshaken and unaltered among the opinions and customs of these changeful times as Gibraltar in the midst of the changeful waters. She pushes her work in the centers of the cities and on the farthest frontiers. page: vi[View Page vi] Her missionary stations girdle the globe, and though her missionary contributions are very large, her zeal is so fiery that more missionaries than can be employed offer their services every year. It is not true that all the religious heroes are dead, and that all we can know of pious daring, of patient, self-denying toil and of willing suffering, is in books of history and in epitaphs cut on monuments. Something of the old pathos quivers through this age, and some gleams of the old glory illumine it. To think otherwise would be to despair. But times are changed. The forests have disappeared. The Indian trail has widened into a turnpike. The solitary horseman no longer picks his cautious way over logs and bogs. The Indian war-whoop has yielded to the more shrill scream of the locomotive. Civilized agriculture has spoiled the old hunting grounds. The painted farm-house has supplanted the log cabin. Towns and cities are more numerous now than wigwams were once. For the ox team we have the palace car, and for what was then almost universal want we now have almost universal supply. Therefore the forms of heroism have changed. It would be a meager compliment to the work of the fathers if it had been so far unsuccessful that the itinerant must still sleep in the woods, and cook his own meals by the bivouac fire. It is not so. The pioneer itinerant did his work so bravely and well, and so heartily shared the deprivations of the early population, that his children have friends. The itinerant of to-day has a tight roof above him and a soft bed under page: vii[View Page vii] him, and when he sits at the table it is spread with abundance. He does not swim the streams any more, for the very good reason that he can cross them on edges. He does not carry saddle-bags, because, as now goes much by rail, a grip-sack is better. There is little chance for the old deprivations. On the note frontiers, where they are still inevitable, they welcomed with the old cordiality and endured with Sold heroism; but for the most part the itinerant now has little opportunity to get fame by suffering.

The heroism of these times must be displayed in her ways. When an age drifts toward luxury and effeminacy there is heroism in energy and self-denial. In a time of vacillating opinions and weakening faith it is a very great and brave thing to cling to the old doctrines and stand boldly for the defense of them. is heroic to maintain a simple worship in an era of dualistic formalism and show, to be thoroughly devout when other men are only sentimental, to be plain and humble in an age of vanity, and to plead for eternal righteousness while other men are pleading for expedients. These are the heroisms for these times, and y are as real and as great as any which the fathers played in swimming swollen rivers and sleeping under the open stars. It is quite as brave a thing to stand before the needle-gun and bayonet of modern as it was to face the arrow and tomahawk of the Indians. Modern philosophy and scientific thought, Called, are quite as perilous as were the old deprivations. It takes as much courage in the modern itinerant to resist the transcendental and materialistic page: viii[View Page viii] philosophies as it did in the old itinerant to fight a bear. The form of the courage is different but it is no less real.

While all this may be said, and said truly, of the heroism of these times, it does not detract at all from the thrilling interest which pervades these annals of the past. The fathers measured up to their opportunities. Theirs was a rougher age than ours, but they were equal to it. They learned much when schools were few, and did much when work was exhausting. They laid the foundations, and did it with enthusiasm, when they certainly knew that death would seal their eyes before the glory of the superstructure could possibly be seen. It was David preparing the way for Solomon to build the temple. It was the faithful mother rocking the cradle of the child whose future glory she was destined not to see. Their names should be recorded, and their pictures should be hung against the wall. There is stimulus in these old heroisms, and this age can not afford to let these memories perish.

But there is more in it than this, for there are false notions abroad as to the intellectual ability, the learning and the oratorical power of the men who are gone. It is often said that they would not be as mighty men now if they were among us as they were in their own generation. It is a kind of flattery with which these times amuse themselves at the expense of dead giants. But it is by no means certain that this estimate of them or of ourselves is correct. John Strange went through this country like a flame of fire. Men who heard him page: ix[View Page ix] fifty years ago can still repeat his texts, describe all the scene, recall the gleam of his flashing eyes and rekindle the fire that glowed in them while he spoke. Such facts show that the man was mighty. He was a genius. He seems to have been almost seraphic, and there can be" no question that he would make a profound impression upon any people who could appreciate what is excellent in character and eloquent in speech. And many of his coadjutors were men of kindred power with the people. It is well to have these errors corrected, and to learn that to be worthy of such sires the men of this generation must be both courageous and great.

Mr. Smith has, therefore, done a good work in recording the names of the men and women, now gone, to whom this generation owe a debt of gratitude, and from whom it may catch some inspiration. Those of whom he writes were his personal friends, and therefore he writes with full knowledge of them. That his personal friendship has not warped his judgment and given too much color to his descriptions, is proved by the testimony of others, still living, who were so fortunate as to know personally the subjects of these reminiscences.

It is also well that he has written of some who are still alive; worthy children of honored sires. The names which he gives are proofs that the heroic, self-sacrificing spirit which made the past illustrious in our denominational history has not utterly departed from us.

That this book will be read by multitudes can not page: x[View Page x] be doubted, and that it will prove a benediction to those who read it is equally certain.


Indianapolis, September 10, 1879.

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WE offer no apology for adding this book to the ready long catalogue that seeks public attention. re are conscious of no desire for fame in producing nor were we influenced by the hope of gain. We rote first to gratify our own pleasure in calling up the memories of the dead who have been useful to the church in Indiana and elsewhere—men and women of sterling worth, illustrious for piety and good works. he memory of these and many others ought not to Irish from the earth. They represent a heroic age I the church, and their writings, their preaching and samples are of immense value to this age. We have written from personal knowledge of the subjects described, and know whereof we affirm. They wrought ad we have entered into their labors. It behooves 3 to study their words, their works and characters, Id bless their memories. We wrote, secondly, in obedience to what seemed to us a reasonable, if not a providential call.

More than a year ago we were asked by a resolution : the Methodist Preachers' Meeting of this city to prepare an article on early Methodism in this State. page: xii[View Page xii] Accordingly we prepared and read before that body the first and second chapters in this volume. This was well received, and we were asked by resolution to prepare another paper on the same general subject. This led to the production of the third and fourth chapters. Then others were called forth in like manner. In the same way most of the theological subjects contained in the Appendix, especially the first, second, third and fourth chapters, were brought out, also the article on the Christian Sabbath.

Up to that time we had not entertained a distant thought of putting these papers into book form, till a resolution was introduced before the Preachers' Meeting unanimously asking us to publish them, with such others as we might desire to write, in such permanent form. We still hesitated, till official request was strengthened with numerous very flattering testimonials from various parts of the State. A call like this we could not well resist. It seemed almost providential; and so our first reluctance gave way to a sense of probable duty.

The work has cost us much labor and "weariness to the flesh," but we do not regret it if our humble effort shall be found useful, and if the memory and virtues of our venerable fathers shall be honorably perpetuated thereby.

Our own experience in the composition of the Reminiscences is valuable to us. It has taught us the wonderful power of memory and something of the laws governing it. When we began these papers, some of which run back fifty years ago, while we were page: xiii[View Page xiii] youth, we feared, as we had not a single written cord of any event narrated, we might not be able to mall from the dreamy past facts enough to make the abject interesting. But when we began to write in earnest we found the dusty pages of memory almost perfect. One fact would suggest another (to use the favorite term of Professor Browne, the metaphysician, in his book on mental philosophy), and this a bird, and so on, till the whole life of the subject under consideration seemed to be before us as if written canvas. Here a question in psychology presents self. Will any fact, or thought, ever committed to the faithful records of memory, perish therefrom? We think not. But it is not proper to argue that question here.

Some may ask, why the necessity of writing another gook on Indiana Methodism? We answer, because ts history is most ample and instructive and inexhaustible. Many of the biographies and sketches of camp-meetings, revivals and other remarkable events here noted, have never been written and published before, and the theological discussions in the Appendix are treated mostly in a new line of argument and style of presentation.

Solomon says: "Of making many books there is no end." Whether he says this prophetically or retrospectively we do not know. If prophetically, we hope the prophecy may prove true. No greater calamity could befall us than an end of book-making. t would throw us ten centuries back, into the middle of the dark ages. It would be the forerunner of a page: xiv[View Page xiv] barbarism worse than that of Tartary or Morocco. It would argue that the age of civilization has ceased; that thought and reason and science and commerce and liberty are at an end, and that stolid ignorance and brutal passion and despotism have usurped their places. That this may not be, let the work of book-making go on; let the spirit increase till the "world shall not be able to contain the books that shall be written." Better too many than too few. Science has just begun her grand march. The missionary spirit and enterprise are just now beginning to awake from the slumbers of the ages. History, too, is in her childhood. Every new scientific discovery requires a new book. Every war for civil and religious liberty, every great temperance movement, every civil reform, requires a new book. Every great advancement of the cause of woman against prejudice and illiberalism, requires a book. Every hero and heroine, falling in the cause of Christ and of human salvation, requires a book. So of making many books let there "be no-end."


September 22, 1879.

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IT matters little when or where a man was born except to notice the surroundings through which he came to man's estate, and by them determine the praise or censure due him for the cultivation or neglect of his opportunities. From the most unfavorable surroundings have come the brightest mental and spiritual lights of the age, while occasionally the genealogy of ordinary men may be traced to a most respectable and talented parentage, and advantageous and fortunate surroundings. A man's life demonstrates beyond a peradventure his industry in the accumulation of the germs sown in his golden opportunities, and the fruits of his labor are evidence of is qualification for his appointed work.. Of the opportunities of his earlier life, and his appreciation and cultivation of them, this sketch of the life of Rev. J. C. Smith will demonstrate. The reader is page: 2[View Page 2] left to his own conclusions of the praise or censure due Mr. Smith, after he has conned these pages, which purpose briefly to sum up his life's work from his birth to the golden sunset in which he now sits waiting for the final summons.

Rev. J. C. Smith was born in Madison county, Kentucky, April 17, 1809. Here he remained for eleven years, during which time his life was uneventful, being only the budding of childhood into youth, fostered and nurtured by loving hearts and hands. In 1820 he removed with his father’s family to Indiana, and settled near Madison in Jefferson county.

In this early day the country was comparatively new, and incident to regions newly cleared of timber diseases of a malarial type, such as chills and fever, were of common occurrence, few being exempt from this plague; but under such known remedies as calomel and jalap, Peruvian bark and snake-root, they readily yielded. Young smith in his early life was kept early and late at the plow, hoe and sickle, and to this early physical training he owes much of the strength which has kept him a well-preserved and active man through three-score and ten years.

True, like the average youth of his age, he occasionally hurried through his tasks and spent his few leisure moments hunting and fishing, but these were not moments lost, either from a financial or mental point of view, for his traps yielded a bountiful supply of game, and his communion with nature moulded his mind into that channel which to-day characterizes his life as one of deep piety and fervent devotion to page: 3[View Page 3] the cause of Christ. His mind by nature was fitted for study, and this in time became his sole delight. His first school experience was under a man by the name of John M. Foster, an ex-lawyer, who, having become too intemperate to follow that profession, took up the occupation of a common-school teacher. Foster was scholarly in his attainments, and delighted in instructing the youth under his care in the principles morality and religion, though himself given to frequent spells of intoxication.

In 1827 Mr. Smith gained admission to Beaumont Parks' academy in the city of Madison, which was then a school of some local interest and general note. Here he devoted his time principally to the study of Latin and Greek, mathematics, and mental and moral philosophy, delighting in the digging for the roots of words in the one, and reveling amid the grandeur and sublimity of the other.

In the fall of 1834, when Mr. Smith was stationed at Bloomington, Indiana, as pastor of the M. E. Church, Mr. Parks held the professorship of Latin and Greek languages in the State University there, and kindly invited his friend and former student to resume his studies in his department, which service he offered to bestow gratis. This offer Mr. Smith gratefully accepted. To his former studies he also added the usual studies of the Senior year, and was offered the privilege of an honorary graduation at the ensuing Commencement of the University, in the fall of 1835, which, however, he declined.

While at the academy in Madison Mr. Smith page: 4[View Page 4] became acquainted with Rev. Edwin Ray, of sainted memory, between whom a holy friendship sprang up which was severed only by the death of the latter a few years afterwards. Through the influence of Rev. Edwin Ray, Mr. Smith was led to embrace religion and unite with the church. Shortly after his conversion, Mr. Ray informed young Smith that he had a presentiment that God had called him to the office of a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, and exhorted him to be his representative in that work when he was gone. Said he, "Though I am young, I am admonished that my ministry will soon terminate." Prophetic words! In less than four years Mr. Ray had laid down the cross for the crown, and the sword of conflict with sin, which he had so nobly and grandly wielded, for the harp of the righteous in "the summer-land of song."

It has always been a source of gratitude to Mr. Smith, that while stationed in Greencastle in 1847 it was his privilege to receive into the fellowship of the church a son of his friend in the person of Col. John W. Ray, as the father had received him to the same fellowship twenty years before.

In the fall of 1830, then being a resident of Jefferson county, Mr. Smith was licensed to preach the gospel. He felt at the time his weakness, yet determined in the strength of the Lord of hosts to be an instrument in the hands of God in the salvation of souls.

After filling several appointments successfully, he was stationed at Indianapolis, at Wesley Chapel (now Meridian Street), in the fall of 1835, in the fifth year page: 5[View Page 5] of his ministry. In this charge his labors were blessed with a gracious outpouring of the Spirit, and many substantial additions were made to the church during the year.

At the session of the state legislature, which convened that winter in the new State Capitol for the first time, Mr. Smith was called upon to open the session with a dedicatory prayer, thus setting apart the new capitol for legislative purposes; and one of the members of that legislature afterwards confessed that under the prayer he was converted from infidelity to a firm belief of the truth and excellency of Christianity, afterwards becoming a worthy and active member of the Presbyterian Church.

At the close of his first year in Indianapolis Mr. Smith was elected the first general agent for the Indiana Asbury University, which was organized that year, Rev., now Dr., Aaron Wood being his associate in the agency.

Through their joint labors the University was placed on a permanent footing. At the close of 1837, at the conference which was held that year in the city of New Albany, Mr. Smith was returned to Indianapolis, at the earnest request of the church he had previously served, and during the following year occurred that great revival of religion described in one of his reminiscences published in this volume. This great, revival, which is vivid to-day in the minds of some of the older settlers in Indiana, did more towards placing Methodism on a high and permanent basis in the capital than any one agency ever operated page: 6[View Page 6] here. Some revivals have but little fruit in the years that follow; true, there is no demonstration of divine power without some good being done, and some soul advanced in the divine life, yet occasionally there is found a wonderful work of grace, which not only lifts the church from lukewarmness to life, but keeps it there, and stamps succeeding years with its sacred and holy influence. Of such a character was this revival, and the lives of some of the lights in the church to-day will evidence the fact.

At the close of his second year at Indianapolis, Mr. Smith was appointed to the pastorate of Wesley Chapel in New Albany, then the only Methodist charge in that city. During his first years in this charge he enjoyed another great revival of religion, by which two hundred and sixty-five souls were added to the church, and 'more than that number were converted in one month. Of these converts, Rev. W. W. Snyder, long a prominent member of the Southeast Indiana Conference, was the last man converted and added to the church. This glorious revival led to the building of Centenary Church of that city, the subscription for which, and the labor of bringing the house to completion, were mostly accomplished by his personal labor and oversight.

Near the close of this year the annual session of Conference was held in Lawrenceburg. From this session of Conference Mr. Smith was returned to New Albany, with Wesley Chapel and Centenary under his charge, Rev. Wm. Knowles assistant. During that session of Conference delegates to the General page: 7[View Page 7] Conference were chosen. Mr. Smith, though a young member, in the ninth year of his ministry, was strongly urged by his many friends for one of the delegates. On the first ballot he lacked only three votes of election, Rev. E. R. Ames, afterwards Bishop, leading him only one vote. After several ballots, running in about the same proportion, Mr. Ames was elected, and Mr. Smith, failing by only two votes, was chosen the first alternate. Four years afterwards, at the session of Conference held in Crawfordsville, he was again urged strongly by his friends for one of the delegates, against such formidable men as Allen Wiley, C. W. Ruter, Augustus Eddy, James Havens, Aaron Wood and others. In this contest Mr. Smith failed of an election only three votes, and was again chosen first alternate. The next time the Conference elected delegates to the General Conference, which was four years afterward, at the session of the North Indiana Conference, held at Indianapolis, Mr. Smith was elected a delegate on the first ballot, together with S. C. Cooper, Richard Hargrave, W. H. Goode, and Samuel Brenton, all being chosen on the first ballot.

The General Conference was held the following May, 1848, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr. Smith was appointed on the committee on Itinerancy, and was chosen its secretary, and by him the report of the committee was written, and subsequently adopted by the Conference with great unanimity.

In the fall of 1838, then in the eighth year of his ministry, he was chosen principal secretary of the Conference, succeeding Rev. C. W. Ruter, who had page: 8[View Page 8] successfully filled that office for many years, and who was justly one of the popular leaders of the Conference. At various times Mr. Smith was Conference secretary, missionary secretary, visitor and trustee of Asbury University, and once a visitor to Garrett Biblical Institute at Evanston, Ill., filling all these offices with great acceptability.

In the fall of 1846 he was stationed at Greencastle, Rev. Dr. Simpson, now Bishop, then being President of the University located there. Here he enjoyed also a great revival in the church, which extended to the pupils both of the University and of Mrs. Larrabee's Female College. About one hundred of the former were converted and added to the church, with about thirty or forty of the latter class. Among the students who were converted and added to the church were Daniel W. Voorhees, now a Senator in Congress; Col. John W. Ray, now of Indianapolis, of whom mention was made at the beginning of this chapter; Mr. Frounfelter, of Lafayette, Ind., a most promising young man, the favorite and pride of the whole college, Mr. Thos. Lowry, of Knightstown, who was converted while on his knees at the communion table, in the act of receiving the sacred emblems, and many others of equal note and worth.

Mr. Smith traveled three several districts, as Presiding Elder, while in the active ministry, i. e. Crawfordsville, Centerville and Evansville Districts, attaching to himself greatly the preachers under his administration, by his universal kindness and interest in them and their work.

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At the close of his first year on the Evansville District, his health being greatly impaired, and at the earnest request of the people of Centenary Church, New Albany, Bishop Ames, during the session of Conference at Evansville, in the fall of 1853, transferred him from the district, and stationed him at Centenary. While in this heavy charge, during the hot summer of 1854, his health was completely broken, and he chose a superannuated relation. At the close of 1854 he removed permanently to Indianapolis (where he now resides), but continued sometimes in a supernumerary relation, and sometimes effective, to fill various duties as pastor of North Street charge for two years (since Trinity Church, now Central Avenue charge), also for several years agent for the Western Seaman's Friend Society, during which time he traveled through the state in its interest, making many new friends and renewing old acquaintances.

Thus, in mere outline, we have sketched some of the more prominent features of the life of the author of this volume. How small seems the life-work of a man when briefly summed up: A few strokes of the pen, and the prominent features of his life are mapped out and spread before the public gaze; and yet, small as the compass appears, the incidents of joy and sorrow, of light and shadow, which are woven in the woof of his life, would make volumes, while the moral influence is as wide-spread as his acquaintance, and the result of his life-work can never be fathomed till Eternity gives us light to count the stars in his crown.

Of his political and civil opinions, Mr. Smith page: 10[View Page 10] himself says: "In politics I am a staunch Republican, regularly descended from the old Whig party. I look with confidence and pride on the Republican cause, and while I admit that corrupt men have sometimes crept into it, as they have into the church and into every good cause on earth, still I glory in the grand record of my party, from its very organization to the present time. Its usefulness history will justify. It has always been the party of popular freedom, and civil progress and reform. It has broken the chains of more than four millions of slaves, and put into their hands the elective franchise as citizens of this American nation of free men. From my boyhood I have been an unflinching abolitionist. I saw this great wrong of slavery, 'the sum of all villainies,' and preached against it and wrote against it when it cost something to do so. I believe that God was in the late war, controlling it as his own method of wiping out this great moral and political curse of the nation. During its darkest periods I saw the land of promise and the triumph of truth. I heard the shouts of God's invisible agents amidst the roar of cannon and the dread tramp of millions of armed men going to battle, and now, in my old age, I rejoice in a free country, a free church, and the rapid spread of righteousness and humanity over all nations."

Of Mr. Smith's style of preaching we need not speak, except to say that all his subjects are prepared with care and handled in a masterly manner. His logic is at all times good. Being well posted in scripture, and an acknowledged able theologian, his page: 11[View Page 11] sermons can not but be of themselves able. Mr. Smith always has preached with a great degree of earnestness, which fastened the truth as it fell from his lips in the hearts of his hearers. Of the success of his earnestness and piety let his success as a revivalist speak. No preacher was ever yet able to command the masses and lead them to Christ who did not impress the people with the idea that his mind was following the desires of his heart. Of his style of writing the reader is by this time aware, and of his method of handling scriptural themes, you are referred to his articles on "Depravity," "The English Translations of the Bible," "The Connecting Chain of Evidence between the Apostolic Age and that of the Christian Fathers of the Second, Third and Fourth Centuries," and other articles published in the appendix to this volume, and as the reader will see, his pen still travels as rapidly as ever with the march of his thoughts.

Mr. Smith is at the present time a brilliant example of a well preserved and active old man. Age has not dimmed his mental vigor, nor has the flight of time been able to cause his footsteps to falter. Always charitable and Christian-like, the coming generation, of whom the writer is one, respects him for his ability, and loves him for his kindness. In his old age he can with pride point to a life of usefulness, at the same time with humility acknowledging himself but an instrument in the hands of God He sits to-day near the earthly boundary of the deep sea of the invisible, whose waves roll out in page: 12[View Page 12] crystalline purity and murmur of heaven and God. The golden light of a rapidly sinking sun gilds them with, to him, a bright promise of future reward. Already he hears the splash of oars in the distance; the boatman may soon appear, the sun may soon set; but we trust it will find him ready, clinging to the cross, trusting in God, to launch out, away from earth forever, where a better land will receive him, hundreds will greet him, Christ will welcome him, and heaven will be won forever.

Mr. Smith has been twice married. His first wife was Mary Eliza Dunn, daughter of Judge Isaac and Frances Dunn, of Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and sister of the late Mrs. Hannah Ann Tousey, Mrs. Sarah Layton and Jacob P. Dunn, Esq., of this city. This excellent Christian wife and mother died in the city of New Albany, in the year 1840, in Christian hope, and left two children, both in early childhood. The eldest of these is now Mrs. Frances E. Webber, wife of H. B. Webber, Esq., of Atwater, Ohio; the youngest is A. Clarke Smith, Esq., now resident in Louisville, Ky., both successfully engaged in mercantile affairs.

His second wife, Mrs. Margaret H. Smith, is still living, cheerful in the faith of a better life which awaits all God's people in the "Sweet by and by." She is the daughter of the late Arthur Hill, Esq., and Mary Hill, of this city, and sister of Rev. James Hill, long an eloquent and successful minister of Indiana Conference, and now of Ohio Conference. Mrs. Smith is of the Baltimore type of Methodists, having page: 13[View Page 13] been born, reared and converted in that city, and brought into the church under the ministry and watch care of such sterling pastors as Rev. Henry Slicer, T. B. Sargent, John A. Collins, John Summerfield, and others of precious memory. Mr. Smith, by this wife, has two sons living—George T. and Arthur H. Smith. Two daughters and one son have preceded them to the better land. George now resides at Ravenna, Ohio, and is engaged in merchandise, and Arthur is traveling in Europe, where for two, years past he has been revelling amidst the grand archeological ruins and living palaces, churches, monuments, museums and other wonders of the old world. The father lives in the sunshine of respect and dutiful affection of these children.

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