Our Keyword Search page is designed to support
simply entering words or complicated queries such as
combining more than one Boolean (AND, OR, NOT),
exact phrase ("") and stemming (*) operators.
Default "AND" Queries
By default, your search will match images that are
described by all the keywords entered in your query:
e.g.palm trees california will be interpreted as
palm AND trees AND california
Search terms and Boolean operators can be entered
in upper or lower case. Our search engine is NOT case-sensitive.
Plural Search Terms
For more results, try searching both singular and plural forms of terms you enter.
You could easily do this by stemming/wildcarding your search terms:
e.g.bridg* will find images described as bridge or bridges.
e.g.bridge OR bridges
Exclusion of Common Words
Common words (see list below) are automatically excluded
from your search. Refrain from composing
queries using only these words, even in an exact phrase ("").
Fields Indexed for Keyword Searching
ID assigned by the photographer, Charles W. Cushman
(referenced in Cushman's notebooks)
IU Archives Number
ID assigned by IU Archives
(used to identify physical location of photograph and for ordering prints)
Year photograph was taken
Exact transcription of descriptions documented in notebooks by Cushman
Description (slide mount)
Exact transcription of slide mount descriptions documented by Cushman
Topical subject headings assigned from the Thesaurus of Graphical Materials I: Subject Terms
(up to 12 headings can be assigned to an image)
Genre headings assigned from the Thesaurus of Graphical Materials II:
Genre and Physical Characteristics Terms (up to 4 headings can be assigned to an image)
Exact address or street names can be assigned to an image
A neighborhood can be assigned to an image
Up to four cities can be assigned to an image
Up to four counties can be assigned to an image
Up to four states/provinces can be assigned to an image
Up to four countries can be assigned to an image
Other Subject Headings
Other subject headings such as Library of Congress Subject Headings
can be assigned
Known personal names follow authority control standards
Known corporate names follow authority control standards
Other names if known, such as state parks, may be assigned
Enhanced Searching for Subject Terms
Up to twelve subject headings could be assigned per image in the
collection (~14,500 images in the collection) so we have lots of subject headings!
We have incorporated the structure of the controlled vocabulary
we used to assign these headings,
Thesaurus of Graphical Materials I: Topical Headings (TGM I),
to enhance your searching experience.
Approximately 1,600 unique headings are used to describe the Cushman
Collection. We have also added to this list of headings links
to synonyms (Lead-In Terms) and links to broader concepts (Broader
Terms) which generates an index of approximately 3,000 subject headings for
The following will happen if your query includes a subject term:
Automatic Retrieval of Narrower Terms
If you use a broader term when searching,
we will automatically retrieve all associated narrower
terms, widening the semantic scope of your search. For example, if you search
"sports" you will also find images of specific sports such as
golf, sailing, football, etc.
Automatic Mapping of Synonyms to Authorized Terms
If you search the term cars, we will automatically map
your search term to the authorized term as designated by TGM I which, in this
case, is automobiles.
User-Initiated Search Suggestions
For every term entered in your query that maps to the TGM I thesaurus,
you will see suggestions for broadening or narrowing your search.
You can select to replace your original subject term(s) with any of
the suggestions provided. For example, if you search for London and churches,
you will be presented with the ability to broaden or refine your original query by
selecting terms broader than churches such
as religious facilities or selecting terms narrower than
churches such as cathedrals while still keeping London
as part of your new search (see example below).
Multi-word subjects such as "marine life" or "botanical gardens" should be
searched as an exact phrase with both words inside quotation marks.
Otherwise your query will be interpreted as botanical AND gardens in which
case suggestions will only appear for the term gardens.
To learn more about controlled vocabularies we used to catalog the
Cushman collection, please visit Cataloging Information
found in the Project Info section of this web site.
To refine or narrow your search, add more terms to your query. For instance the query,
churches France will return more results than churches France stained glass.
Use specific terms if you know what you are looking for.
Keep in mind that too many terms
could also restrict your search results.
Retrieves images described with both terms
To expand or broaden your search results, use the OR operator. For instance,
if you are looking for images of churches in Western Europe, your query
could be constructed as follows:
e.g.churches (France OR Germany)
e.g.churches (France OR Germany OR Austria)
Keep in mind that broad terms combined in an OR search could
yield too many results.
Retrieves images described with one or more terms
Conducting a NOT search can help if you know exactly what you are looking for. For example, you
may want to find images of churches but not in France:
e.g.churches NOT France
The NOT operator has to be used with at least one other term.
Excludes images described with second term
Combining Boolean Operators
Complex searching such as Boolean searches (AND, OR, NOT) can be conducted
in the keyword search query box by using the following syntax:
e.g. Tribune Tower OR Wrigley Building
e.g. Skyscrapers NOT Tribune Tower
e.g. Skyscrapers NOT ("Empire State Building" OR "Wrigley Building")
Order of Operations
You can add parentheses to your query
to define which section of your complex query should be processed first. If you don't add
parentheses, your query will be interpreted by default in order from left to right.
e.g.Skyscrapers NOT ("Empire State Building" OR "Wrigley Building") will first aggregate
images described as either Empire State Building or Wrigley Building and then exclude these images
from the Skyscrapers set.
e.g.Skyscrapers OR statues NOT New York will first aggregate images described as either skyscrapers
or statues and then exclude images of skyscrapers or statues in New York.
Use the asterisk (*) at the end your search terms to find images described with
e.g.sky* will find images described
as sky, skyline, skyscrapers, skylights
e.g.brid* will find bride, brides, bridge, bridges
Using an asterisk (*) generally broaden search results.
We recommended that you search plural as well as singular forms of words to
ensure hits. Adding an asterisk (*) at the end of your search terms is an
easy way to do this.
You can also use the asterisk to match one ore more unknown character in
the beginning or middle of a search string:
e.g.s*d will find images described as sad, sand or solid
If you are looking for images from a certain decade,
use the year browse or
the year fields in advanced search page instead of
entering a year ending in an asterisk (e.g. 195*).