Keyword Search Tips

Jump to: Searching Basics | Exact Phrase | Boolean | Wildcard | Advanced Operators

Searching Basics

Our Keyword Search page is designed to support simply entering words or complicated queries such as combining more than one Boolean (AND, OR, NOT), exact phrase ("") and stemming (*) operators.

Default "AND" Queries
By default, your search will match images that are described by all the keywords entered in your query:

  • e.g. palm trees california will be interpreted as palm AND trees AND california

Case-Insensitive
Search terms and Boolean operators can be entered in upper or lower case. Our search engine is NOT case-sensitive.

Plural Search Terms
For more results, try searching both singular and plural forms of terms you enter. You could easily do this by stemming/wildcarding your search terms:

  • e.g. bridg* will find images described as bridge or bridges.
  • e.g. bridge OR bridges

Exclusion of Common Words
Common words (see list below) are automatically excluded from your search. Refrain from composing queries using only these words, even in an exact phrase ("").


a
about
after
all
also
an
any
and
are
as
at
be
because
been
but
by
can
co
corp
could
for
from
had
has
have
he
her
his
if
in
inc
into
is
it
its
last
more
most
mr
mrs
ms
mz
no
not
only
of
on
one
or
other
out
over
s
so
says
she
some
such
than
that
the
their
there
they
this
to
was
we
were
when
which
who
will
with
would
up
&

Fields Indexed for Keyword Searching

Cushman Number ID assigned by the photographer, Charles W. Cushman (referenced in Cushman's notebooks)
IU Archives Number ID assigned by IU Archives (used to identify physical location of photograph and for ordering prints)
Year Year photograph was taken
Description (notebook) Exact transcription of descriptions documented in notebooks by Cushman
Description (slide mount) Exact transcription of slide mount descriptions documented by Cushman
Subject Headings Topical subject headings assigned from the Thesaurus of Graphical Materials I: Subject Terms (up to 12 headings can be assigned to an image)
Genre Headings Genre headings assigned from the Thesaurus of Graphical Materials II: Genre and Physical Characteristics Terms (up to 4 headings can be assigned to an image)
Street Address Exact address or street names can be assigned to an image
Neighborhood A neighborhood can be assigned to an image
City Up to four cities can be assigned to an image
County Up to four counties can be assigned to an image
State/Province Up to four states/provinces can be assigned to an image
Country Up to four countries can be assigned to an image
Other Subject Headings Other subject headings such as Library of Congress Subject Headings can be assigned
Personal Names Known personal names follow authority control standards
Corporate Names Known corporate names follow authority control standards
Other Names Other names if known, such as state parks, may be assigned

Enhanced Searching for Subject Terms
Up to twelve subject headings could be assigned per image in the collection (~14,500 images in the collection) so we have lots of subject headings! We have incorporated the structure of the controlled vocabulary we used to assign these headings, Thesaurus of Graphical Materials I: Topical Headings (TGM I), to enhance your searching experience.

Approximately 1,600 unique headings are used to describe the Cushman Collection. We have also added to this list of headings links to synonyms (Lead-In Terms) and links to broader concepts (Broader Terms) which generates an index of approximately 3,000 subject headings for searching.

The following will happen if your query includes a subject term:

Automatic Retrieval of Narrower Terms
If you use a broader term when searching, we will automatically retrieve all associated narrower terms, widening the semantic scope of your search. For example, if you search "sports" you will also find images of specific sports such as golf, sailing, football, etc.

Automatic Mapping of Synonyms to Authorized Terms
If you search the term cars, we will automatically map your search term to the authorized term as designated by TGM I which, in this case, is automobiles.

User-Initiated Search Suggestions
For every term entered in your query that maps to the TGM I thesaurus, you will see suggestions for broadening or narrowing your search. You can select to replace your original subject term(s) with any of the suggestions provided. For example, if you search for London and churches, you will be presented with the ability to broaden or refine your original query by selecting terms broader than churches such as religious facilities or selecting terms narrower than churches such as cathedrals while still keeping London as part of your new search (see example below).

User-Initiated Search Example


Multi-word subjects such as "marine life" or "botanical gardens" should be searched as an exact phrase with both words inside quotation marks. Otherwise your query will be interpreted as botanical AND gardens in which case suggestions will only appear for the term gardens.

To learn more about controlled vocabularies we used to catalog the Cushman collection, please visit Cataloging Information found in the Project Info section of this web site.


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Exact Phrase

To find proper names of places or people or common phrases, use exact phrase by adding double quotation marks ("") to your query:

  • e.g. "Yosemite National Park"
  • e.g. "National Park" NOT Yosemite

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Boolean Searches: AND, OR, NOT

AND Searches
To refine or narrow your search, add more terms to your query. For instance the query, churches France will return more results than churches France stained glass. Use specific terms if you know what you are looking for.

Keep in mind that too many terms could also restrict your search results.


AND Venn Diagram
Retrieves images described with both terms

OR Searches
To expand or broaden your search results, use the OR operator. For instance, if you are looking for images of churches in Western Europe, your query could be constructed as follows:

  • e.g. churches (France OR Germany)
  • e.g. churches (France OR Germany OR Austria)

Keep in mind that broad terms combined in an OR search could yield too many results.


OR Venn Diagram
Retrieves images described with one or more terms

NOT Searches
Conducting a NOT search can help if you know exactly what you are looking for. For example, you may want to find images of churches but not in France:

  • e.g. churches NOT France

The NOT operator has to be used with at least one other term.


NOT Venn Diagram
Excludes images described with second term

Combining Boolean Operators
Complex searching such as Boolean searches (AND, OR, NOT) can be conducted in the keyword search query box by using the following syntax:

  • e.g. Tribune Tower OR Wrigley Building
  • e.g. Skyscrapers NOT Tribune Tower
  • e.g. Skyscrapers NOT ("Empire State Building" OR "Wrigley Building")

Order of Operations
You can add parentheses to your query to define which section of your complex query should be processed first. If you don't add parentheses, your query will be interpreted by default in order from left to right.

  • e.g. Skyscrapers NOT ("Empire State Building" OR "Wrigley Building") will first aggregate images described as either Empire State Building or Wrigley Building and then exclude these images from the Skyscrapers set.
  • e.g. Skyscrapers OR statues NOT New York will first aggregate images described as either skyscrapers or statues and then exclude images of skyscrapers or statues in New York.

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Wildcard/Stemming

Use the asterisk (*) at the end your search terms to find images described with ending variations:

  • e.g. sky* will find images described as sky, skyline, skyscrapers, skylights
  • e.g. brid* will find bride, brides, bridge, bridges

Using an asterisk (*) generally broaden search results. We recommended that you search plural as well as singular forms of words to ensure hits. Adding an asterisk (*) at the end of your search terms is an easy way to do this.

You can also use the asterisk to match one ore more unknown character in the beginning or middle of a search string:

  • e.g. s*d will find images described as sad, sand or solid

If you are looking for images from a certain decade, use the year browse or the year fields in advanced search page instead of entering a year ending in an asterisk (e.g. 195*).


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Advanced Operators

Certain fields can also be used as advanced search operators from the Keyword Search or Results pages (see example from Keyword Page below, note syntax of field name:).

Advanced Operator Example in Keyword Search Page


The following fields can be used as advanced operators:

Descriptive Name of Field Operator Syntax Examples
Keyword keyword: keyword: oceans or bays
Subject Headings subject: subject: utility poles
Roll Number roll: roll: 1-38
Cushman ID cushmanid: cushmanid: 453.21
IU Archives ID archivesid: archivesid: P06632
Description description: description: circus clown*
Neighborhood neighborhood: neighborhood: brooklyn
City city: city: bloomington
County county: county: miami-dade
State/Province state:
province:
state: indiana
province: ontario
Country country: country: turkey
Personal Names person: person: Charles Cushman
Corporate Names corporate: corporate: coca-cola company
Year year: year: 1956
Genre Headings genre: genre: portraits

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